Photographs: Gonzalo Viramonte, Sebastian Alonso, Manuel Cucurell Manufacturers Brands with products used in this architecture project La Inesita Housing / Andrés Alonso Arquitecto Area: 550 m² Year Completion year of this architecture project ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/955343/la-inesita-housing-andres-alonso-arquitecto Clipboard Photographs Argentina Lead Architect: La Inesita Housing / Andrés Alonso ArquitectoSave this projectSaveLa Inesita Housing / Andrés Alonso Arquitecto Design Team:Andrés Alonso, Araceli Julieta GonzalezClient:520 DevelopmentsEngineering:Eduardo Walter MoronCollaborators:Fernando Neyra, Dianela Guajardo, Franco AichinoCity:Villa AllendeCountry:ArgentinaMore SpecsLess SpecsSave this picture!© Gonzalo ViramonteRecommended ProductsLouversAccoyaAccoya® Wood for Shutters and LouvresMetallicsTECU®Copper Surface – Classic CoatedWindowsVitrocsaMinimalist Window – SlidingDoorsLonghiDoor – HeadlineText description provided by the architects. La Inesita is a 550 m2 building, formed by 6 homes, arranged over an 800 m2 lot, located in a residential neighborhood of Villa Allende City, Cordoba, Argentina.Save this picture!© Gonzalo ViramonteSave this picture!© Gonzalo ViramonteThe city has suffered a densification process which has worried a sector of the population, who sees this development as a threat to the single-family household residences of some neighborhoods and, consequently to the way these were perceived and experienced a few years ago, endangering its identity as a city-town.Save this picture!© Gonzalo ViramonteSave this picture!Save this picture!© Gonzalo ViramonteAdded to this phenomenon, there is a lack of urban planning that takes into account the need of urban spaces and equipment; this, to our understanding, has contributed to the loss of the small town character, excluding the encounters between neighbors and reducing public spaces to streets and sidewalks, these last ones lacking in many cases.Save this picture!© Gonzalo ViramonteSave this picture!Save this picture!© Gonzalo ViramonteBased on this, we understand that intervention should begin, on one hand, by resolving the impact that greater densification in the area could generate, and on the other, by proposing solutions to the lack of urban spaces and equipment.Save this picture!© Gonzalo ViramonteSave this picture!© Gonzalo ViramonteIn consequence, with this analysis, the removal of the standard front face is conceded to public space generating a sidewalk extension with a bench that runs all along the façade. This way it proposes a connection between both public and private spaces so as to function as an “urban buffer” that fosters social encounters.Save this picture!© Gonzalo ViramonteConcerning the treatment of the relationship with the surroundings, we work with a sequence of high basal walls which work as veils, hiding the nature of the objet to the observer. This ruse allows an illusory effect that demands from the experimenter to use the fourth dimension (time) to travel through it and to reveal the mystery of its nature. Over this 2.50 m tall brick base that occupies the total buildable length of the lot, the second floor materializes. Plastered and painted in white and finished in a permeable skin constituting the façade of this second level. It allows sunlight to illuminate it from behind revealing, towards the street, the presence of emptiness. This emptiness is contained within high walls giving to this space an atmosphere that emancipates itself from its immediate surrounding, turning this terrace into a meeting place for its inhabitants.Save this picture!© Gonzalo ViramonteSave this picture!© Gonzalo ViramonteThis functional outline is simple and clear. The building utilizes the left side to generate the pedestrian circulation that alows to enter the ground floor of each functional unit and it opens completely to the east where the row of backyards is located. Vehicles enter from the opposite side of the walking area and park under the common use expansion.Save this picture!© Gonzalo ViramonteEn este sentido nos pareció interesante trabajar con pieles que funcionan como velos. De esta manera la naturaleza del edificio queda oculta al observador que necesitara de la cuarta dimensión (el tiempo) para atravesar sus muros y descubrirlo.Save this picture!© Gonzalo ViramonteEste artilugio visual da cuenta de que la arquitectura puede trabajar a diferentes nivel de percepción y que el tratamiento de la mirada es fundamental a la hora de hacer arquitectura y que muchas veces es necesario no mostrar. La ciudad de Villa Allende al carecer de un planeamiento integral carece de espacios públicos distribuidos estratégicamente.Save this picture!© Gonzalo ViramonteProject gallerySee allShow lessAugusta Vin Winery / Texas Timber FramesSelected ProjectsQ04L63 House / mf+arquitetosSelected ProjectsProject locationAddress:Villa Allende, Cordoba, ArgentinaLocation to be used only as a reference. It could indicate city/country but not exact address. Share Andrés Alonso “COPY” Architects: Andrés Alonso Arquitecto Area Area of this architecture project Save this picture!© Gonzalo Viramonte+ 41Curated by Clara Ott Share 2020 Projects “COPY” Manufacturers: Hierros S.A., JM Aberturas Year: ArchDaily CopyApartments•Villa Allende, Argentina ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/955343/la-inesita-housing-andres-alonso-arquitecto Clipboard Apartments CopyAbout this officeAndrés AlonsoOfficeFollowProductBrick#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousingApartmentsVilla AllendeOn FacebookArgentinaPublished on January 19, 2021Cite: “La Inesita Housing / Andrés Alonso Arquitecto” [Edificio La Inesita / Andrés Alonso Arquitecto] 19 Jan 2021. ArchDaily. Accessed 10 Jun 2021.
30 total views, 3 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis J4b, whose main operations are in the UK and the Netherlands, publishes the following funding databases:www.j4bgrants.co.ukwww.greengrantsmachine.co.ukwww.j4bcommunity.co.ukwww.studentcashpoint.co.ukwww.j4bgrants.iewww.vindsubsidies.nl AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving. Tagged with: Consulting & Agencies Digital Funding J4b bought by Idox plc Howard Lake | 1 May 2009 | News J4b Software and Publishing Limited, the company that publishes a range of funding information databases for businesses, local authorities and charities/voluntary organisations has been bought by Idox PLC, an AIM-listed company that is a supplier of software solutions and services principally to the UK public sector.Idox paid £800,000 in cash. J4b had revenues of £2 million for the year ended 31 December 2008, an operating profit of £300,000 and net assets of £200,000 at 31 March 2009.Jeremy Philips, Managing Director of J4b, will join the executive team of Idox, bringing his experience in electronic content management, database design and publishing. Advertisement
Last October, Colin Kaepernick, the African-American former quarterback for National Football League’s San Francisco 49ers, was asked after a game why he was wearing a Muhammad Ali t-shirt. He said, “To pay homage. [Ali] fought a very similar fight and was trying to do what’s right for the people. …“He is someone who helped pave the way for this to happen. What he did and what he stood for, people remember him more for that than … as a boxer.“I can’t let him die in vain. I have to be able to carry that on and try to fight that same fight until we accomplish our goal.” (nbcbayarea.com, Oct. 17)The “similar fight” Kaepernick referred to is the ongoing struggle against racist oppression, especially police violence, which he protested by taking a knee during the national anthem at every 2016 regular season NFL game. Kaepernick remarked that he could not respect a flag of a country that did not respect the lives of Black people.After Kaepernick’s symbolic protest demanding justice for Black and Brown victims and survivors of police brutality made national and international headlines, similar protests were carried out by teams and individual athletes in many sports on all levels — elementary, high school, college and professional.Kaepernick paid homage to the Muhammad Ali who came to global prominence not only as the heavyweight boxing champion, but also as an activist who fought U.S. governmental repression against national liberation movements during the late 1960s. Ali was stripped of his boxing title and denied matches during his prime boxing years, 1967 to 1971, after he refused to be inducted into the U.S. military to fight in Vietnam. He refused because of his religious reliefs as a Muslim and his opposition to the war.Although Kaepernick has gained millions of admirers, including NFL players from other teams, he has also been ostracized by right-wing politicians, NFL owners and coaches. Since his release from the 49ers following the 2016 season, he has not been signed by another NFL team.Kaepernick has organized “Know Your Rights” conferences in the Bay Area, Chicago, New York City and other places to help bring about positive change for youth of color who are prime targets for “stop and frisk” harassment by the police and for mass incarceration.Kaepernick was criticized for publicly saying he was not going to vote for either Hillary Clinton or Donald Trump for president due to their racism.Carrying forth Ali’s legacyDr. Harry Edwards is a sociologist, activist and founder of The Olympic Project for Human Rights. He attempted to organize a boycott of Black athletes during the 1968 Summer Olympics, where Black sprinters John Carlos and Tommie Smith gave the Black Power salute.Recently Edwards called Kaepernick, “This generation’s Muhammad Ali.” (Chicago Sun-Times, May 18)Just as Ali was willing to give up his livelihood for his political convictions, the same holds true for Kaepernick, who has stated that to resist white supremacy, he is prepared not to ever play again in the NFL.Kaepernick’s Twitter feed continues to bring to light police terror. For example, he broadcast the fact that a white police officer, Betty Shelby, was found not guilty on May 18 of fatally shooting yet another unarmed Black man, Terence Crutcher, in Tulsa, Okla. Crutcher’s murder was captured on videotape last September.To help put into perspective how Black lives are dehumanized, Tyler Jones, a young Black man from Cincinnati, was sentenced to 19 years in prison, also on May 18, for multiple felonies, including wounding a police dog. Jones did not fatally shoot anyone.Kaepernick is fighting against endless racist atrocities. In the early morning of May 22, Richard Collins, a 23-year-old Black man scheduled to graduate from Bowie State University the next day, was stabbed to death while simply waiting at a Maryland bus stop. His attacker? A white supremacist and neo-Nazi belonging to the “Alt Reich: Nation” Facebook group. A Baltimore FBI agent had the nerve to question whether this horrendous murder was a “hate crime” or not. (nbcwashington.com, May 22)A 7-year-old special-needs Latinx child, Yosio Lopez, was put in handcuffs at his school by Dallas police on May 16 after being Tased by school officials for banging his head against a wall. Lopez is diagnosed with “attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and another mood disorder.” The child was then sent to a mental hospital without his mother’s permission. She was denied the right to visit her son for nearly a week. (cnn.com, May 19)Acting head coach for the National Basketball Association’s Golden State Warriors, Mike Brown, who is African American, was nearly arrested by the California State Highway Patrol for trying to enter a gate at his own home arena before the May 16 playoff game in Oakland. The patrol was escorting the San Antonio Spurs, the visiting team, into the Oracle Arena when Brown was stopped and harassed.Even as Brown kept telling the police that he was the Warriors coach, a cop yelled at him, “I don’t care. You, stop!” (Mercury News, May 16) If this had been the Warriors head coach, Steve Kerr, who is white, the police would have responded very differently.These recent examples of white supremacy help to deepen the legitimacy of Colin Kaepernick’s heroic protest, spurred on by the defiance of the great Muhammad Ali of the 1960s. Both continue to inspire millions of people into actively defending Black and Brown lives.FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thisFacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare this
News Kambakhsh’s brother, fellow journalist Yaqub Ibrahimi, told Reporters Without Borders: “We thought there would be more justice in the Afghan capital and especially at the summit of the judicial system, but this decision taken in silence leads us to fear that there is no justice at all in this country.” RSF asks International Criminal Court to investigate murders of journalists in Afghanistan Organisation Receive email alerts News to go further “At no point in this case has the Afghan judicial system observed the correct procedure,” Reporters Without Borders said. “After an initial trial behind closed doors without any defence lawyer and after all the appeal court irregularities, the supreme court has now confirmed a very severe sentence without even hearing the defence’s arguments.” The organisation added: “We now fear that Kambakhsh could be transferred to Pul-e-Charkhi prison or Mazar-i-Sharif prison, where his life would be in danger.” Reporters Without Borders is appalled to learn that the Afghan supreme court has upheld the 20-year prison sentence which Sayed Perwiz Kambakhsh received on a blasphemy charge. The organisation solemnly appeals to President Hamid Karzai to use his right of pardon in order to have Kambakhsh released without delay. June 2, 2021 Find out more Kambakhsh’s lawyer, Mohamad Afzal Nuristani, told Reporters Without Borders: “I went to the supreme court to hand in the defence arguments. There, I was told that the court confirmed the 20-year sentence a month ago and that the case has been already passed back to the prosecutor. How can they reach such a decision without even waiting to hear what the defence has to say? (…) I am going to file an appeal.” Kambakhsh was arrested on a blasphemy in the northern city of Mazar-i-Sharif on 27 October 2007 for downloading an article about the role of women in Islam. A Kabul appeal court imposed the 20-year prison sentence in October 2008.Reporters Without Borders visited Kambakhsh at the Kabul provisional detention centre in January. He continues to insist on his innocence. “From the outset I have said I was innocent,” he told the delegation. “Under the law and the constitution, I have committed no crime. Neither of the two courts proved my guilt. I was convicted solely because of pressure from certain people, not because of the law.”A journalism student at Balkh university and a reporter for the newspaper Jahan-e-Naw (“New World”), Kambakhsh was arrested in Mazar-i-Sharif on 27 October 2007 on a charge of “blasphemy and distribution of texts defamatory of Islam.” Under pressure from the Council of Mullahs and local officials, the Mazar-i-Sharif court sentenced him to death in a trial held behind closed doors and without a defence lawyer on 22 January. Members of the security forces tortured him to obtain a confession. Help by sharing this information RSF_en May 3, 2021 Find out more Reporters Without Borders is appalled to learn that the Afghan supreme court has upheld the 20-year prison sentence which Sayed Perwiz Kambakhsh received on a blasphemy charge. The supreme court took its decision without hearing arguments from the defence. In fact, the journalist’s lawyer learned of the ruling as he was about to submit his letter of defence. Follow the news on Afghanistan AfghanistanAsia – Pacific Reporters Without Borders solemnly appeals to President Hamid Karzai to use his right of pardon in order to have Kambakhsh released without delay. Karzai had promised several foreign leaders that the young journalist would be freed. The press freedom organisation continued: “It is astounding that the supreme court failed to overturn the appeal court verdict, as none of the prosecution witnesses said he had received a copy of the allegedly blasphemous article from Kambakhsh and one of them retracted what he had said at the initial trial, recognising that his initial testimony was given under duress.” News Afghanistan : “No just and lasting peace in Afghanistan without guarantees for press freedom” News March 9, 2009 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Call for presidential pardon after supreme court upholds Perwiz Kambakhsh’s 20-year jail sentence for “blasphemy” AfghanistanAsia – Pacific Situation getting more critical for Afghan women journalists, report says March 11, 2021 Find out more
Palestine is ranked 137th out of 180 countries and territories in RSF’s 2020 World Press Freedom Index. to go further News Receive email alerts RSF_en May 16, 2021 Find out more “Hamas must lift this ban and allow the journalists employed by Al Arabiya to work freely and in fully pluralistic manner,” said Sabrina Bennoui, the head of RSF’s Middle East desk. “The political differences between Hamas and the Saudi authorities do not in any way justify a blanket ban on journalists working for this TV channel or any other media outlet, regardless of its political position.” Israel now holding 13 Palestinian journalists July 15, 2020 Hamas bans journalists from working for Saudi TV channel The Al Arabiya report said several members of Hamas had been arrested for allegedly working for Israel and a Hamas military officer commander had fled to Israel. The Hamas interior ministry issued a statement the same day accusing Al Arabiya of “deceit,” of publishing “fabricated information” and of “spreading rumours and lies.” News PalestineMiddle East – North Africa Condemning abuses Help by sharing this information Follow the news on Palestine PalestineMiddle East – North Africa Condemning abuses June 3, 2021 Find out more News WhatsApp blocks accounts of at least seven Gaza Strip journalists RSF asks ICC prosecutor to say whether Israeli airstrikes on media in Gaza constitute war crimes News RSF has learned that Hamas issued the ban today in response to a report broadcast by Al Arabiya on 12 July that contained lies, according to Hamas. Al Arabiya’s two correspondents in the Gaza Strip have been notified of the ban. May 28, 2021 Find out more Organisation Al Arabiya has been officially banned in the Gaza Strip since Hamas took control of its government in 2006. Although it does not have a bureau, it had nonetheless been tolerated since Israel’s “Pillar of Defence” military operation in Gaza in 2012, and local journalists, including the two correspondents, had been able to cover major events for the channel. Reporters Without Borders (RSF) calls on the Hamas authorities to reverse their decision to ban all journalists in the Gaza Strip from working for the Saudi TV news channel Al Arabiya – a decision that violates media pluralism.
SHANNON Airport is faced with a significant threat to its viability under current ownership arrangements, according to the Booz and Company report.Commissioned by Minister for Transport Leo VaradkarSign up for the weekly Limerick Post newsletter Sign Up in a bid to identify and analyse the future of the three state airports the report, published in part this Wednesday, recommended that full separation from the Dublin Airport Authority would provide the greatest autonomy and incentives to deliver traffic growth.Responding, Deputy Kieran O’Donnell told the Limerick Post:“It clearly states that the current model at Shannon Airport is not working and that a fresh look at new ways to improve it are demanded.“It is also made clear that Shannon needs to be independent of the DAA if it is to improve passenger numbers.“The demand for the development of landbanks around the airport has been further strengthened”The report reveals that Shannon has been hardest hit of the State airports in the four years to 2010, with a fall of 50% in passenger figures, while operational costs remain high.It suggests that opportunities to develop niche businesses would be further enhanced should the airport be more integrated with the surrounding industrial developments, in particular the Shannon Free Zone, which is currently owned and managed by Shannon Development.According to the report the loss of Shannon as an asset is “unlikely to create significant risks to the DAA’s Financial viability”.However, it does state that the airport would require financial support to maintain its current size and operating capacity.“Integrating the Shannon Free Zone with the airport would address this issue”.It also recommends the exploration of new sources of revenues, “including exploitation of land banks, cargo business potential and improved expansion of the US pre-clearance facility to include cargo”.However, the report also states that there is “good reason to believe that Shannon Airport will continue to require subsidies from the DAA and that traffic will not recover to previous levels, at least in the short-run”.The Booz report recommends two approaches for the future control of Shannon.The first recommends a DAA restructure, with each airport given the status of independent subsidiary within the overall airport group.“The independent airport boards would set strategic direction for the airports and appoint individual management teams with responsibility for developing tailored business plans”.The second recommends separating out ownership and operation of Shannon Airport under a local concession model.Under this approach the composition of the Local Authority holding entity could include Clare and Limerick County Council, with the former recently approving such an approach.“The holding company could also include Shannon Development as part of a move to integrate the airport with nearby industrial land, as well as input from relevant commercial interests and public bodies as required”. Email Previous articleTributes flow for the ‘inimitable’ Jack BourkeNext articleNew owner tells of plans for Kate O’Brien’s ancestral home admin Linkedin NewsLocal NewsReport confirms DAA threat to ShannonBy admin – March 1, 2012 856 Twitter WhatsApp Facebook Print Advertisement
Sign up for DS News Daily Q: What are some of the hot topics and perhaps challenges that servicers are concerned with today?A lot of energy is being spent on the storms in Florida and Texas. We, as a vendor, are working with our clients to help them assess what the exposure is and making sure that their properties are getting secured. We have people out in the field updating information so that we can help the servicers and ultimately help the borrowers.Many discussions are about the direction that’s going to be given from the agencies on what the options are for loss mitigation and property preservation. Additionally, coming up with data that everyone could look at to work and assess what everyone’s exposure is for their investors. There are many good ideas—now it’s just getting those ideas and putting them into action.Q: Have there been concerns regarding innovation in the servicing space?Yes—budgets are tight in servicer’s operations these days. A lot of money and time has been spent on compliance and shoring up the operations, and the industry has done a very good job—from a compliance standpoint—of getting out the consent orders, ensuring that their operations are sound and in compliance. Concerning people working with tighter budgets—how can you still get things done? That means being more efficient, utilizing technology a little bit differently, and coming up with new innovative ideas to help move their business forward.Q: How do you feel about the possibility of microbubbles in Houston following the moratorium? There will be microbubbles, and there are going to be implications for all the markets, even when it comes to the real estate movement, as far as buying and selling real estate. But I think the major issues are going to be unemployment and the self-employed borrowers—the local businesses. It will impact the ability to pay, their ability to get to work if their cars were flooded and no longer working. Loss mitigation is going to be a big issue. Ultimately the borrower and the impact on the borrower is a big issue.Q: How does that break down further?So, the properties themselves—we know what happens when a property is exposed to mold and not properly treated. The value of that home obviously declines, which declines home values in the local market, which could cause a bubble. Then when it comes to new financing in these hard-hit areas, there will be more risk pricing, which could impact the ability to get loans in those local areas that have a propensity for flooding, propensity for storm damage. That could impact the market, as well. Print This Post in Daily Dose, Featured, Headlines, Loss Mitigation, News Altisource Microbubble Servicing 2017-09-25 Brianna Gilpin Servicers Navigate the Post-Pandemic World 2 days ago Subscribe About Author: Brianna Gilpin Altisource CRO Talks Microbubbles Tagged with: Altisource Microbubble Servicing The Best Markets For Residential Property Investors 2 days ago Previous: JPMorgan Chase: Assisting in 4 Economic Growth Areas Next: GSE Portfolio Shows Improvement Demand Propels Home Prices Upward 2 days ago Data Provider Black Knight to Acquire Top of Mind 2 days ago Brianna Gilpin, Online Editor for MReport and DS News, is a graduate of Texas A&M University where she received her B.A. in Telecommunication Media Studies. Gilpin previously worked at Hearst Media, one of the nation’s leading diversified media and information services companies. To contact Gilpin, email [email protected] Governmental Measures Target Expanded Access to Affordable Housing 2 days ago Home / Daily Dose / Altisource CRO Talks Microbubbles Share Save The Week Ahead: Nearing the Forbearance Exit 2 days ago John Vella, CRO of Altisource speaks with Brianna Gilpin, Online Editor of DS News and MReportJohn Vella is a 30-year real estate industry veteran who has served in a number of C-level roles at companies throughout the real estate and mortgage industry during his career. Prior to joining Altisource, Vella was EVP of Special Servicing for GMAC/Rescap. Previously, he held roles as President and CEO of EMC Mortgage Corporation (a subsidiary of JPMorgan Chase); CEO of Household Automotive; Chief Sales Officer of Option One Mortgage and Director at Freddie Mac and the FDIC.Vella spoke with DS News at the 2017 Five Star Conference and Expo on the challenges servicers are experiencing in the market as well as the possibility of regional microbubbles following the recent hurricanes in Texas and Florida. Related Articles Servicers Navigate the Post-Pandemic World 2 days ago The Best Markets For Residential Property Investors 2 days ago Data Provider Black Knight to Acquire Top of Mind 2 days ago September 25, 2017 2,012 Views Demand Propels Home Prices Upward 2 days ago Governmental Measures Target Expanded Access to Affordable Housing 2 days ago
Subscribe Home / Daily Dose / Laudan Closing Property Preservation Business, Shifting Focus to Inspections Laudan Closing Property Preservation Business, Shifting Focus to Inspections Servicers Navigate the Post-Pandemic World 2 days ago Data Provider Black Knight to Acquire Top of Mind 2 days ago Laudan Inspection Services Laudan Properties 2020-01-20 David Wharton Data Provider Black Knight to Acquire Top of Mind 2 days ago Demand Propels Home Prices Upward 2 days ago Previous: Addressing Race in Home Inventory and Rental Policies Next: The Socioeconomic Impact of Postforeclosure Sales Laudan Properties announced Monday that it will be closing its property preservation business, effective January 20, and shifting its focus onto its property inspection division, Laudan Inspection Services (LIS). Laudan initially divided its property preservation sector from its inspections business in September 2019, then announcing the formation of Laudan Inspection Services.Brian Potasiewicz, SVP & General Manager of Laudan Properties and LIS, told DS News exclusively, “Laudan Inspection Services has seen considerable growth through 2019. We made the decision to focus on that growth through 2020 by stepping back from preservation and REO work. We’re excited about our new focus and looking forward to a lucrative future for Laudan Inspection Services.”As Laudan now repositions itself for future growth, Donn Wodicka, LIS Field Director, said in a statement, “LIS continues to achieve great things as there is a strong interest for on-time, high-quality inspections. We are willing to develop customized inspection products to meet our customers’ specific needs and that sets us apart.”Laudan Properties was originally founded in 2008, by entrepreneur Kevin Weidinger, starting as a single-state provider and then expanding to a national footprint over the intervening years. The company’s inspection services side offers bankruptcy inspections, borrower interviews, foreclosure & occupancy inspections, insurance loss inspections, natural disaster inspections, quality control inspections, rush service sale date inspections, and other services. The Best Markets For Residential Property Investors 2 days ago Governmental Measures Target Expanded Access to Affordable Housing 2 days ago in Daily Dose, Featured, Journal, News, REO Sign up for DS News Daily Servicers Navigate the Post-Pandemic World 2 days ago Print This Post January 20, 2020 2,522 Views Related Articles Tagged with: Laudan Inspection Services Laudan Properties David Wharton, Managing Editor at the Five Star Institute, is a graduate of the University of Texas at Arlington, where he received his B.A. in English and minored in Journalism. Wharton has over 16 years’ experience in journalism and previously worked at Thomson Reuters, a multinational mass media and information firm, as Associate Content Editor, focusing on producing media content related to tax and accounting principles and government rules and regulations for accounting professionals. Wharton has an extensive and diversified portfolio of freelance material, with published contributions in both online and print media publications. Wharton and his family currently reside in Arlington, Texas. He can be reached at [email protected] Share Save The Week Ahead: Nearing the Forbearance Exit 2 days ago Governmental Measures Target Expanded Access to Affordable Housing 2 days ago The Best Markets For Residential Property Investors 2 days ago About Author: David Wharton Demand Propels Home Prices Upward 2 days ago
ColumnsBorrowing Powers Of The Union And States In India: Time To Reflect And Revisit Varad S. Kolhe16 May 2020 5:44 AMShare This – xIntroduction The global pandemic has left no stone unturned to affect everything on its path, and economic dynamics are certainly not an exception to its unwavering captures. While predictions abound that the world economy may be pushed to its brink, opinions also resonate that developing economies may witness sharper recessions, with IMF projecting India’s growth rate at a dismal…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginIntroduction The global pandemic has left no stone unturned to affect everything on its path, and economic dynamics are certainly not an exception to its unwavering captures. While predictions abound that the world economy may be pushed to its brink, opinions also resonate that developing economies may witness sharper recessions, with IMF projecting India’s growth rate at a dismal 1.9% in fiscal year 2020. As the government and Reserve Bank of India attempt to put the pedal to the metal to revive the weakening economy, it recently announced a raise of the Union government’s gross borrowing to Rs. 12 lakh crores, jumping 54% from the budgeted Rs. 7.8 lakh crores. This came after the finance ministry’s decision to allow 28 states to borrow a cumulative of Rs 3,20,481 crores from markets on an ad-hoc basis for the first nine months of the current fiscal year. One may ponder: What is the source of governments’ borrowing powers? Are there any redlines drawn on such powers? What mechanism regulates the borrowing of centre and states? It is here that we turn to one of the under-discussed and under-debated parts of the Indian Constitution i.e. Arts. 292-293 in Chapter XI dealing with Financial Relations. Borrowing Powers of the Union Art. 292 is the adapted version of s. 162 of the Government of India Act, 1935 (“Act”). The Central Government (“Centre”) can borrow within such limits, if any, as may be fixed by Parliament by law. The executive power of the Union extends to borrowing upon the security of the Consolidated Fund of India (essentially the resources of the Union) within such limits, if any, as may from time to time be fixed by Parliament by law and further to the giving of guarantees within such limits, if any, as may be so fixed. Art. 292 is to be read together with entries 35 and 37 of List I of the 7th Schedule by which Parliament commands exclusive power to make laws with respect to ‘public debt of the Union’ and ‘foreign loans’. It is fascinating that Art. 292 does not obligate the executive to obtain statutory mandate from Parliament to borrow funds. Rather, it merely empowers the Parliament to make a law, if it so desires, to define the limits and conditions subject to which loans can be raised by the Centre. However, the Parliament has kept this legislative power to control the borrowing activities of the Centre at bay. As a result, Centre’s borrowings are premised entirely on its executive authority i.e. borrowings during the year are reflected in the Budget and approval of Budget by Parliament is essentially regarded as approval of the Centre’s borrowing schism as well. As such, there is no quantitative bar to the borrowing powers of the Centre. Borrowing Powers of the States Art. 293 is again, an adapted version of s. 163 of the Act. Clauses (1) and (2) of Art. 293 substantially replicate sub-s. (1) and (2) of s. 163 of the Act while Clauses. (3) and (4) reproduce sub-s. (3), except with the omission of the words ‘borrow outside India’. Sub-s. (4) (giving Governor-General the discretion to decide the reasonability of withholding consent to the states for borrowing loans) was altogether omitted in the draft Constitution. Granville Austin in his book Constitution of India – Cornerstone Of A Nation” (9th ed, at p. 233), categorically pointed out how the states’ failed to realize the trappings of Art. 292 during its adoption in the Draft Constitution: “The Assembly adopted the provisions in the Draft Constitution concerning “borrowing” with little difficulty. It will be recalled that the provincial governments with outstanding loan from the Union or its predecessor Government were not to borrow without Union’s consent. When this Article was under consideration, seven out of the nine provinces had outstanding loans. Yet, the provincial governments evidently did not believe that this put them unduly in the grip of the Union and did not oppose either the Article or the proviso. Nor, it seems, has the working of this Article during the last decades been detrimental to the interests of the States”. Sources: Art. 293(1) Art. 293 demarcates the twin sources available to the states for borrowing: (i) It may directly borrow from sources within the territory of India, upon the security of the Consolidated Fund of the State [cl. (1)]; and (ii) it can draw from the Government of India by way of loan [cl. (2)]. Limitations: Art. 293(2)-(4) However, unlike the Centre’s unbridled borrowing powers, state’s borrowing powers are circumscribed with limitations: (i) they cannot borrow from sources outside India; (ii) the executive power of the state extends to borrowing on the consolidated fund of the state subject to the limitations imposed by law enacted by the state legislature. In that vein, Article 293 is to be read with Entry 43 of List II which gives the State Legislature the exclusive power to legislate relating to the ‘public debt of the State’, in essence subject to the limitations as discussed. In addition, if the Centre is a guarantor to an outstanding loan of the state, a fresh loan cannot be raised by the state unless consent is obtained from the former. Similarly, the Centre can itself offer a loan to the states (the sum of which is charged on the Consolidated Fund of India). Till the time such a loan subsists, the state cannot borrow further without the Centre’s consent. Art. 293(4) permits the Centre to prescribe the terms of such consent. Although there is no purpose specific or quantitative prescription to be abided by, as a natural corollary of this legislative scheme, the states are under significant hold and control of the Centre. The consent of the Centre under Cl. (2) – (4) is the only fuel to ignite the state’s borrowing vehicle further. As all states borrow from the Centre, no state today can raise a loan without obtaining the much-needed consent from the Centre. Mathew v. Union of India: A Sole-Standing Precedent The judgment of the Kerala High Court in Mathew v. Union of India remains the lone instance of judicial exposition of Arts. 292-293 by courts in India. Dealing with the limited question of whether the provisions embodied in Articles 292 and 293 of the Constitution debar the Central and the State Governments from borrowing any money beyond the amount standing to their credit in the Consolidated Fund, the court held: “A perusal of Article 292 shows that in exercise of the executive power, the Central Government is empowered to borrow “upon the security of the Consolidated Fund of India.” The limits, if any, can be “fixed by Parliament.” Such limits can be imposed only “by law.” It is further clear that such law can impose limits even in respect of giving of guarantees. Similarly, by Clause (1) of Article 293, the States are placed in an identical position. In other words, the two provisions empower the Governments of India and the States to borrow money. The Constitution does not say that the borrowing has to be ‘upto’ the amount of money available in the Consolidated Fund. The framers have used the expression ‘upon the security of. Still more, it is only by law that the Central and the State Legislatures can impose limits upon the borrowing. Such limits are not embodied in Articles 292 and 293 of the Constitution. Thus, the contention that the two provisions place an embargo on the power of the executive to borrow cannot be sustained. In fact, the plain language suggests that the two Articles primarily contain enabling provisions. These authorize the respective Governments to borrow. Also to enact laws to regulate the borrowing. These do not place a limit or an embargo.” Characterizing Arts. 292-293 as mere enabling provisions in the Indian Constitution, the court emphasized that limits on borrowing powers, if any, could only be perpetuated by the Parliament for the Centre and the state legislatures for respective states. Comparative Lens U.S. The Congress has unlimited power to borrow on the credit of the United States by virtue of Art. 1, s 8(2) of the Constitution. It has the liberty of choice in terms of means and methods of the exercise of such power as well in terms of purpose, as long as it is one for which the Congress may be lawfully authorized to spend finances. Although the Congress has the power to decide on the terms of payment of amounts so borrowed, it is on the same pedestal as a private borrower when it comes to repudiation of obligations under the loan contract, except in cases of exercise of some paramount power, for example, war power. The states have no locus to control the borrowing power of the federal government, whether by taxation or otherwise, without its consent. This Constitution leaves the borrowing by the States on the credit of their own resources, to be governed by the State Constitutions. Canada Canada replicates the American legal framework for borrowing powers as s. 91(4) of the British North America Act gives the Dominion exclusive power in relation to “the borrowing of money on the public credit”. However, s. 92(3) limits the borrowing power of the provinces to the sole credit of the Province. Australia Under s. 51(iv) of the Australian Constitutional Act, 1900, it was the Commonwealth Parliament that exercised the power of borrowing money on the credit of the Commonwealth. However, the insertion of s. 105A by the Constitution Alteration (State Debts) Act, 1929 established a representative body i.e. the ‘Loan Council’ comprising representatives of both the Commonwealth and state governments. This served as a special purpose vehicle in order to avoid competition between the Commonwealth and the State Governments in the loan market while exercising borrowing powers of both the Commonwealth and State governments. As a result, the Commonwealth’s power to borrow independently ceased, except for defence purposes. Nonetheless, the borrowing power of the Commonwealth is paramount and the entire transaction is outside the jurisdiction of the states. Even interest derived from loan bonds issued by the Commonwealth is immune from state taxation. Prof. Wheare in his treatise Federal Government (1951, at p. 104), termed the establishment of the Loan Council as a unique occurrence in the history of financial relations between the Centre and states: “The establishment of the Loan Council in Australia, an institution for compulsory cooperation between general and regional governments, super-imposed upon the federal system, is a unique event in the history of the financial relations of general and regional Government in a federation”. The Way Ahead Seventy years into independence, neither the Parliament nor any of the state legislatures in India have opted to exercise the legislative power to regulate borrowing powers under Art. 292 and Art. 293 respectively. The Eleventh Finance Commission proliferated a useful recommendation in this respect: “A time has come when, as a part of the overall thrust towards fiscal responsibility, concrete steps are taken under the provision of Articles 292 and 293. In particular, Parliament and respective State Legislatures may consider fixing limits on total borrowing as well as on guarantees to be given to them”. Many may argue that the Parliament has in-fact, passed Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2003 (Act 39 of 2003). However, it comes as no surprise that the provisions of this legislation are far away from being implemented in their form itself, let alone their implementation, in substance. As we face an unprecedented economic crisis which may make or break the revival of the Indian economy, it is necessary that the Centre and states enact a fiscal responsibility legislative measures that prescribe specific annual targets with a view to eliminating the revenue deficit and reducing fiscal deficits based on the basis of careful monitoring of borrowings and guarantees, within the framework of their fiscal responsibility legislation. It is also necessary that states consider determining tangible levels on the growth of debt and contingent liabilities. Finally, the time is ripe to let the states access the market directly for their borrowing requirements. To ensure this strategy reaps fruit, India can tread on Australia’s footsteps and establish an independent body such as the Loan Council adequately represented both by Centre and the states to fix and supervise the overall limit to which states can borrow annually from all sources. This will also avert any detrimental competition to the Centre’s borrowing ventures by entry of states into the market.Views Are Personal Only [The author is a final year undergraduate student at ILS Law College, Pune. He may be reached at [email protected]] Next Story