Primitive rocks that are related to continental flood basalts are rare, but often reveal crucial information on the ultimate sources of these huge outpourings of mantle-derived magma. Here we present mineral chemical data for mafic and ultramafic dikes from the Antarctic extension of the Jurassic (~ 180 Ma) Karoo continental flood basalt province that was emplaced during the initial stages of the breakup of the Gondwana supercontinent. We concentrate on two previously recognized high-Ti dike rock suites (Group 3 and Group 4) that exhibit high MgO contents (up to 22 wt. %). Both groups are characterized by Mg-rich olivine phenocrysts (up to Fo90) that are not mantle xenocrysts and indicate derivation from relatively Mg-rich parental magmas. Orthopyroxene is a common phenocryst and groundmass phase indicating emplacement at mid-crustal pressures (2–5 kbar; depth of ~ 10–20 km). The parental magmas of Group 3 and Group 4 dikes can be associated with pyroxenite sources on the basis of high olivine NiO, high whole-rock Zn/Fe, and low whole-rock CaO. In the case of Group 3 dikes, however, the samples that contain the most Mg-rich olivine also exhibit the mildest pyroxenite fingerprint and indications of an additional olivine-bearing (peridotitic) source component. We propose that the pyroxenite fingerprint of Group 3 and Group 4 dikes reflects relatively low-degree melting of fertile mantle at high pressures beneath the thick and cold Gondwanan lithosphere. Such conditions limited high-degree melting of peridotite sources which may have been predominant in the generation of the Karoo low-Ti basalts within lithospheric thinning zones.