Steve Sidwell has been passed fit for Fulham’s FA Cup fourth-round clash with Everton.The Whites midfielder went off injured during the 5-2 win over Newcastle but is in boss Martin Jol’s squad for Friday’s game.But veteran goalkeeper Mark Schwarzer is still being troubled by a spinal problem and will not feature at Goodison Park.AdChoices广告Neither will Moussa Dembele, who has been nursing a hip injury and pulled out of training on Thursday morning.Follow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebook
A new California law requiring students to be up-to-date on vaccinations before enrolling in public schools was put into place July 1, and this school year is the first to witness its implementation. This need for children who attend public school to be vaccinated is an example of the state interceding in local authority for the sake of the greater good of the public. In the delegation of authority within a state with regard to education, local school districts continuously adapt to reflect current issues within the district, while the state acts as a constitutional authority on education through the creation of laws and regulations. Legislation like the No Child Left Behind Act, and more recently, Common Core, has given the federal government increasing power over education. Thus, what is the relationship between the state and federal government in the authority over educational issues?In the 1973 Supreme Court case San Antonio Independent School District v Rodriguez, the Court held that there was no fundamental right to education in the Constitution; thus, as demonstrated in cases like Brown v Board of Education and others, states cannot have discriminatory schooling practices, but plaintiffs are limited in their ability to appeal to the federal government for how those systems of education within the states are arranged otherwise. The constitutionally delegated authority for states to have power over education resides in each state’s constitution. California, for example, explicitly states that a common system of school must exist, and has specific constitutional requirements pertaining to the funding of schools, religious instruction and establishment of higher education. Given that the constitutional authority over education resides in each individual state, and the negative consequences over accountability measures utilized by the federal government in order for schools to receive federal funding, education is best left to be handled and decided on by the states. Federal policies often link accountability measures to funding sources to ensure that schools are held responsible and that the funding they are given is used for a particular goal. For example, No Child Left Behind, a piece of federal legislation enacted into law in 2002, links standardized test performance to sanctions for public schools that fail to make adequate yearly progress by each subgroup of students based on special needs, minority status, English language proficiency and socioeconomic status. NCLB helped spurn the movement in education toward high stakes accountability testing as a means to make sure schools, and furthermore states, were teaching students what they needed to learn. The belief was that if the federal government tested students and held educators accountable for improving test scores, students’ scores would increase. However, students have barely shown any increase in scores when comparing test scores pre and post NCLB implementation. Yet, both the Bush and Obama administrations have offered federal grants through Race to the Top, Flexibility Waivers under NCLB, School Improvement Grants and various other programs to push states, districts and schools to line up behind policies that use these same test scores in high-stakes evaluations of teachers and principals. These tests are larger indicators of educational opportunity gaps that exist between races and social classes, which can only effectively be remediated at the state level as well. These accountability measures have been unable to effectively demonstrate how they have successfully raised student academic achievement, which was the goal of their implementation in the first place. Proponents of federal control education point out examples from international countries that have exemplary systems of education thanks to federal control. Countries like Finland, which is consistently ranked as the top nation in the world for education, do boast a heavy federal government presence in schools. However, it is important to note that the success of these other countries are much more heavily related to their distribution of funding, wealth equity, social programs and teacher education programs than the role of the state or federal government in education.Ultimately, states have the right to set their own learning goals and standards for what they want their students to learn in schools. Furthermore, when the state and local school districts have more authority over education, constituents are better able to vote elected officials out of office if they feel like the official is not appropriately solving educational issues within the state or district. By maintaining local control over education, communities have more of a chance to have a larger impact on schooling, and address their individual students’ unique needs better than the federal government would be able to.Julia Lawler is a senior majoring in history and social science education. Her column, “Get Schooled,” runs Fridays.
MASON CITY — When the Mason City Aquatic Center hopefully reopens in 2021, there will be a new aquatic playground feature. Recreation Superintendent Brian Pauly says the current recreation play areas are cracking, fading and starting to show their age after 17 years, and it’s also becoming a safety concern due to the cracking and sharp edges. Pauly hopes the new equipment can be enjoyed next year. “This is replacing the structure in the recreation pool that’s on the south side of it. I am very hopeful COVID-19 is least controlled where we can have an aquatic center season in 2021.” Pauly says with the pool closed it will be best to do this project right away. “By doing this now, this actually hopefully does not delay the opening because of construction for the 2021 season.” Pauly says the lone bidder on the project, SplashTacular of Kansas City, was the company that bought out the company that installed the original equipment at the Aquatic Center. SplashTacular said it was going to cost the city more to refurbish the existing playground compared to completely replacing it. The Mason City City Council last night approved a contract for the new project for $99,888.
Roy Evans claims securing Champions League qualification again would represent a good season for Liverpool.Having come so close to the Premier League title last term, optimism is high at Anfield ahead of the new campaign.But it has been a summer of change at the Merseyside club, with star man Luis Suarez sold to Barcelona and six players coming in, and Evans believes Brendan Rodgers will do well to lead the Reds to a top four finish.“You never quite know what you are getting until you get those new people in. He has bought some exciting players, but it is sometimes difficult to make sure they can play together,” said the former Liverpool boss, speaking on the Alan Brazil Sports Breakfast.“The expectation will go massively back on to Brendan. People are talking about winning the Premier League, but I think if he gets them back into the Champions League again, having bought six or seven players, he has done a great job.”
Source:https://actu.epfl.ch/news/new-small-molecules-for-the-treatment-of-autoinfla/ Jul 4 2018EPFL scientists have discovered two small-molecule compound series that can effectively block a central pathway of the innate immune system, offering a promising new way for treating autoinflammatory diseases. The study is published in Nature.The innate immune system is the first line of defense, with cells that quickly identify “foreign” motifs from viruses and bacteria and mount up a counterattack to eliminate them. As a key strategy to sense the presence of pathogens, the cells of the innate immune system use receptors that can identify microbial DNA and in turn activate a protein called STING (STimulator of Interferon Genes).Once activated, STING turns on genes that help cells fight off the infecting pathogen.Nonetheless, the innate immune system can turn against the body itself, causing a number of diseases, which are referred to as autoinflammatory. But even though the molecules involved in the innate immune system are well studied, developing drugs that act on specific molecules of interest is still a big challenge.Now, the lab of Andrea Ablasser at EPFL has discovered first-in-class compounds that specifically bind STING and effectively block its activity. The team used a screening assay to find molecules that can suppress STING-mediated cellular activation. From these they extracted two separate compound series that can block STING, both in human and in mouse cells.To find out the compounds’ mechanism of action, the researchers painstakingly mutated several of the amino acids that make up STING in order to find out which ones are targeted by the compounds. Doing so, the scientists identified a conserved transmembrane cysteine, which binds to the compounds irreversibly. As a consequence of this interaction, this particular cysteine residue can no longer undergo palmitoylation – a post-translational modification that attaches a fatty acid (palmitic acid) to STING.Although we don’t know exactly how this chemical process connects to the activity of STING, the scientists observed that when STING was activated in the course of their experiments, it assembled into multimeric clusters – a well-known effect of palmitoylation. This observation adds evidence that palmitoylation is required for STING to perform its role during innate immune responses, presenting another potential target for blocking STING in the context of autoinflammatory disease.Related StoriesNew research could help design algae that produces fuels and cleanup chemicalsSlug serves as ‘command central’ for determining breast stem cell healthGene modulation goes wireless hacking the “boss gene”Finally, the team carried out proof-of-concept pre-clinical studies to test the effect of the compounds on actual autoinflammatory diseases. For this, the scientists used the compounds to treat mice with mutations that constitutively activate STING, thereby producing a type of autoinflammatory disease similar to some seen in humans.In an exciting finding, treatment with either compound class significantly reduced key pathogenic features in mice. Of importance, an in vitro test on cultured human cells with these small-molecules also showed efficacy to block the human version of STING further supporting therapeutical potential of these compounds in humans. However, confirmation of this effect would require formal clinical trials.The discovered compounds are described as “small molecules”, which is a term used for molecules with low molecular weight and up to a nanometer in size. In fact, most drugs are small molecules, meaning that the discovered compounds show promise for drug development.”Our work uncovered an unexpected mechanism to target STING and provided the first proof-of-concept that anti-STING therapies are efficacious in autoinflammatory disease,” says Andrea Ablasser. “Beyond specific monogenic autoinflammatory syndromes, the innate immune system is implicated in even broader ‘inflammatory’ conditions, so we are excited to learn more about the role of STING in human diseases.”With EPFL, the authors have filed provisional patent applications related to STING inhibitors.