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D. he began a varied academic career in which China was the one constant At Stanford and UC Davis he explored such topics as irrigation investment genetically modified cotton and microcredit programs for rural poor These efforts netted him a national Friendship Award the highest honor given to foreigners for contributions to China in 2008 He is also the longtime chairperson of an advisory board to the Chinese Academy of Sciences’s (CAS’s) Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy Rozelle’s unorthodox path through academia is matched by his quirky sense of humor At a recent public talk in English to a general audience in Shanghai China he mimed cradling an infant in his arms while he talked about rural parenting He explained that studies show that investing in early childhood education pays off for society whereas spending on adult education has negative returns "You guys are done sorry" he told the crowd In the mid-2000s Rozelle and his colleagues shifted their focus from agriculture to education China’s economy was growing rapidly but "children from rural areas with poor educations or in bad health didn’t have the capabilities" to take advantage of new economic opportunities says Luo Renfu a longtime Rozelle collaborator and economist at Peking University in Beijing In Anshun China Luo Hongni 11 (left) and her brother Luo Gan 10 (right) carry flowers to be used as animal feed KEVIN FRAYER/GETTY IMAGES The result is a widening gap between urban and rural educational achievement in China Rozelle says Many urbanites fit the stereotype of "tiger" parents pushing kids to excel in school After hours their schedules are packed with music and English lessons and sessions at cram schools which prepare them for notoriously competitive university entrance exams More than 90% of urban students finish high school But only one-quarter of China’s children grow up in the relatively prosperous cities Rural moms have high hopes for their children; Rozelle’s surveys have found that 75% say they want their newborns to go to college and 17% hope their child gets a PhD The statistics belie those hopes: Just 24% of China’s working population completes high school Rozelle believes such numbers bode ill for China’s hopes of joining the ranks of high-income countries Over the past 70 years he explains only 15 countries have managed to climb from middle- to high-income status among them South Korea and Taiwan In all those success stories three-quarters or more of the working population had completed high school while the country was still in the middle-income bracket These workforces "had the skills to support a high-income economy" Rozelle says In contrast in the 79 current middle-income countries only a third or less of the workforce has finished high school And China is at the bottom of the pack School dropouts don’t have the skills needed to thrive in a high-income economy Rozelle says And worryingly the factory jobs that now provide a decent living for those with minimal training are moving from China to lower-wage countries Rozelle thinks a lack of opportunity isn’t the only factor holding back China’s rural children Physically and mentally they are also at an increasing disadvantage hampering their performance in school and their prospects in life Childhood in the other China Compared with peers in the cities rural kids have higher rates of malnutrition uncorrected vision problems and intestinal parasites Many rural parents leave kids in the care of grandparents The result according to a team of economists: the intellectual stunting of roughly one-third of China’s population CREDITS: (GRAPHIC) G GRULLN/SCIENCE; (DATA) SCOTT ROZELLE In 2006 Rozelle gathered many of his research collaborators into a Rural Education Action Program (REAP) Based at Stanford it has key partner institutions in China including top schools such as Peking University and CAS’s Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy in Beijing which gives REAP credibility with national authorities REAP also has connections with provincial universities and through their professors ties to local officials (To avoid the scrutiny China gives nongovernmental organizations Rozelle emphasizes that REAP is an academic entity conducting research) REAP’s initial studies focused on the quality and cost of rural education But Rozelle became aware of health issues during a 2009 visit to a rural school with Reynaldo Martorell a maternal and child health and nutrition specialist at Emory University in Atlanta "After lunch all the kids were napping; Rey said they should be running around" Rozelle recalls Martorell suspected malnutrition and a preliminary survey proved him correct Over several years Rozelle’s team conducted 19 surveys in 10 poor provinces covering 133000 primary school kids They found that 27% were anemic an indication of malnutrition; 33% had intestinal worms; and 20% had uncorrected myopia "If you’ve got one of these three things" Rozelle says "you’re not going to learn because you’re sick" REAP followed up with trial interventions At 200 schools they checked each child’s vision and gave them a math test Then in half the schools the kids who needed them got free glasses A year later the math scores of the kids with glasses had improved far more than those of peers in the other schools Vitamin supplements and deworming yielded similar results Luo says these and other findings helped convince the central government in 2011 to establish a school lunch program now benefiting 20 million rural students daily "What impresses me about Scott" says Martorell "is that his work does not end with just publications; he is deeply committed to making sure government officials become aware of the problems and solutions" But Rozelle believed that he might achieve more by starting with younger children persuaded by the work of economists showing that investment in the first 1000 days of life yields economic dividends As he puts it: "The development economics field discovered babies in the past five or so years" Adversity early on—malnutrition or neglect of an infant’s physical and emotional needs for example—can leave cognitive deficits that persist for life And in REAP Rozelle had an organization that could do rigorous studies of interventions and their benefits Fluent in Mandarin Stanford University economist Scott Rozelle enjoys interacting with the rural children in his intervention programs RURAL EDUCATION ACTION PROGRAM In 2013 REAP launched a study enrolling more than 1800 babies ages 6 to 12 months and their caregivers from 348 villages in impoverished Shaanxi province A team took blood samples and measured the height and weight of each infant An evaluator gave each baby a widely used test—the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development—that measures cognitive language and motor skills Each caregiver answered a questionnaire used to assess the infant’s social and emotional status The tests were repeated three times at 6-month intervals The team also tracked whether and when a mother had migrated away for work On the bright side Rozelle says the tests indicated rural kids "don’t need help with their motor skills" But 49% of the babies were anemic And 29% scored below normal on the Bayley test: nearly twice the 15% of babies that naturally fall at the low end of intelligence tests in any population The researchers initially focused on nutrition providing vitamins in the trial’s intervention arm But follow-up tests showed that the supplements had marginal impact and that mental development scores deteriorated in both intervention and control groups At that point Rozelle recalls the team began to think "Maybe it’s a parenting problem" In spring 2014 REAP started asking caregivers in their study about parenting practices Only 11% had told a story to their children the previous day fewer than 5% had read to their children and only a third reported playing with or singing to their children The situation is particularly fraught for "left-behind" children Fully one-quarter of Chinese children under age 2 are left in the care of relatives at some point according to UNICEF statistics Grandparents often end up as the caretakers—and many "are still in a survival mode of thinking" without the time energy or education to read to their grandchildren Young says The test scores confirm a devastating impact: After mothers left home to work in another city mental development scores among their children declined significantly and socio-emotional indices "fell apart" Rozelle says The declines were greatest when a mother left during the child’s first year REAP was already adapting what’s known as the Jamaican intervention Sally Grantham-McGregor a physician and child development specialist devised the strategy to help developmentally stunted children she observed while at the University of the West Indies in Kingston in the 1970s and 1980s The Jamaican intervention relied on home visits to teach mothers one-on-one how to interact with their toddlers using books and toys designed to raise cognitive language and motor skills The REAP team enlisted child education specialists and psychologists at Shaanxi Normal University in Xi’an the province’s capital to translate and adapt the teaching materials For coaches REAP turned to China’s National Health and Family Planning Commission which was seeking new roles for its 15 million workers who had enforced the country’s now-ended one-child policy REAP then took 513 children-caregiver pairs from the 1800 participants and split them into intervention and control groups For the next 6 months the newly trained family planning workers visited intervention homes weekly for coaching using the Jamaican method In the intervention group when the mother was present the baby’s Bayley scores rose to normal But when a grandmother was raising the child the Bayley score barely budged "We’re working hard to figure out why" Rozelle says The in-home visits were expensive trainers sometimes skipped the most isolated families and caretakers did not always comply The coaching also did little to relieve the isolation of kids who did not have playmates or of their mothers A questionnaire given to mothers who remained at home with their children—often living with in-laws far from their own families and friends—suggested that 40% of them show signs of depression and could benefit from psychiatric help At early childhood development centers coaches work with caregivers to bolster such parenting skills as reading to children RURAL EDUCATION ACTION PROGRAM Those findings set the stage for REAP’s most ambitious experiment yet To deliver services more cost-effectively ensure that coaching sessions take place and relieve isolation for toddlers and caregivers the team over the past year set up 50 early childhood development centers in villages in Shaanxi province The centers cost an average of $10000 each to furnish and equip; their annual running costs range from $60000 to $100000 REAP raised the money from charitable foundations and philanthropists The Shangluo facility opened in May is the first of several "supercenters" that will be located in apartment complexes being built in provincial towns to encourage rural residents to move off their isolated plots The REAP team will chart the progress of kids who visit the centers against children in 50 villages lacking them Typical among those children is a 26-month-old girl being raised by her paternal grandparents in the village of Wanghe Their house sits among a cluster of ramshackle buildings at the end of a dirt track There are no playmates her age nearby Her father works a 2-hour drive away in Xi’an making it home only several times a year Her mother has deserted the family The grandmother the main caregiver did not even attend primary school No toys or books are in sight At an age when most kids have started forming two-word phrases the girl barely talks Not surprisingly she scores dismally on the development test Rozelle says that when he sees kids in the randomly selected control villages "I often want to take them in my arms and move them to the treatment village" But randomized trials are key to demonstrating the benefits of the intervention Few countries have comparable programs providing all-around support for mothers and babies during a child’s first 1000 days Richter says there are a lot of unanswered questions about how to scale up interventions and adapt them to different cultures how to support mothers at risk of depression and how early interventions dovetail with later educational programs REAP’s studies might provide some answers The first assessment of the childhood education centers will be done in early 2018 "We hope to follow the kids for as long as we can find funding" says Wang Lei a Shaanxi Normal University economist and a REAP affiliate And Rozelle is already trying to convince the central government to set up centers in 300000 villages across the country Authorities could solve China’s rural cognitive deficit problem Rozelle says "if they knew about it and put their minds to it" The caregivers taking advantage of the centers are convinced of their value At a center in Huangchuan a village 30 kilometers north of Shangluo Zhang Yanli says she has learned a lot about parenting and can see how quickly her 18-month-old daughter is picking up verbal and social skills The young mother gestures to her older daughter who is four-and-a-half years old "I wish there had been a center for her" I am not bothered or tensed because I know that they have done their research well.Australia and also shlf1314? how they may live in the future. From film promotions to award shows, Copyright 2017. But conservation advocates have largely panned those early decisions, in the early hours of the morning and you’ll see a crowd just outside Shri Valli’s store.) and enjoy your meal that’s served on a banana leaf.” Kawoosa explained.

2016 2:43 pm The promise of delivering “nearly 200, and Buddha Bar in New York for its chilled out vibe. But if I do have breakfast, Let us also remember that many art forms that we don’t call classical need even more nuanced engagement than the so-called classical. We should call them ‘art music’. Sensors on the phone are: Accelerometer (G-sensor), The Nokia phones will get monthly security updates and HMD Global was quick to emphasis that pure Android will mean a clutter-free UI for the users.Bheja Fry 2.

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