Nanodevices could use quantized current to operate future electronics

first_img Citation: Nanodevices could use quantized current to operate future electronics (2007, November 26) retrieved 18 August 2019 from This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. For the past several decades, virtually all electronics devices have been based on the CMOS logic system, which uses semiconductors and transistors to form digital circuits. However, researchers today are investigating the use of novel materials and technologies to create superior circuitry, which would lead to smaller, faster and smarter computers, cell phones, and other devices. Explore further Producing graphene from carbon dioxide Then, the researchers suggested how PTTGs made in either of these two ways could be used to create universal logic gates. Due to the flexible quantization characteristics of the current-quantization devices, a single PTTG could implement nearly all 256 three-input Boolean functions (the most common computing method in digital electronics). Also, two PTTGs put together could implement all 65,536 four-input Boolean functions. “The quantized current devices have several quantization states that can be used to represent discrete logic states,” Zhang explained, “while conventional CMOS transistors have only two logic states: on and off. That’s why the quantized current device can enable complicated and compact periodic-threshold threshold logic gates.”The researchers also explained that the current-quantized logic gates could have several advantages over conventional logic gates. For one thing, they have both a simple and more universal circuit structure. Compared to the 40 transistors required by a conventional three-input logic gate, a PTTG would only require 10 equivalent devices. Further, the two current-quantized logic gates both have very small sizes, offering the potential for high density circuitry. Finally, due to their small size and low resistance, the new logic gates may also have a significant speed advantage.“The key to achieving quantized current devices is small device geometry,” Zhang said. “Both the ballistic transport of electrons in electron waveguides and the Coulomb-blockade effect in the single-electron turnstile require small device geometry to overcome the thermal energy. With recent advances in fabrication, room-temperature operations of the electron waveguide and single-electron turnstile are possible.”More information: Zhang, Wancheng, Wu, Nan-Jian, and Yang, Fuhua. “Compact universal logic gates realized using quantization of current in nanodevices.” Nanotechnology 18 (2007) 495201 (8pp).Copyright 2007 All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of Most recently, scientists Wancheng Zhang, Nan-Jian Wu, and Fuhua Yang from the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing have designed logic gates—a basic component of digital circuits—that use the quantization of electric current to perform operations. The recent development of two unique nanodevices has enabled scientists to control the flow of individual electrons, allowing the team to propose novel universal logic gates that are more compact than conventional logic gates.“When talking about future digital circuits using nanodevices, researchers usually focus on their potentially high density and fast speed,” Zhang told “The greatest significance of this work is that we show that the unique operating principles of novel nanodevices can be used to implement smarter logic circuits with very compact structures. Therefore, future nano-based-circuits can have advantages both in size and in circuit structure.”In their study published in Nanotechnology, the researchers proposed two different designs for building “periodic-threshold threshold logic gates” (PTTGs). In the first method, the researchers proposed using an electron waveguide—which is essentially a one-dimensional channel—to take advantage of the wave nature of the electron. Because the channel is narrower than a single electron, an electron wave can travel through the channel without scattering, in a discrete number of modes. By using two of these electron waveguides, and combining their current values, the logic gate could have an output consisting of the combined input currents.In the second method, the scientists proposed a PTTG using a single-electron turnstile, a device that can accurately control the number of transferred electrons using a quantum effect called the Coulomb-blockade effect. This effect, which only exists in a tiny area about the size of a single electron particle, ensures that the number of electrons transferred by the turnstile is a quantized function of its voltage. By controlling the voltage, the researchers could theoretically determine the number of captured electrons, and use two single-electron turnstiles to transfer electrons to a storage node, with the difference of electrons between the two turnstiles determining the output signal.last_img read more

Scientists use AI cobweb analysis to determine spider species

first_img Explore further Spider web samples of the four species: (a) Allocyclosa; (b) Anapisona simoni; (c) Micrathena duodimspinosa; (d) Zosis geniculata. Credit: Expert Systems with Applications, Volume 40, Issue 10 Joshua Tree spider species named for U2’s Bono ( —The identification of spider species based on pattern recognition of their cobwebs has been shown to be quite possible and successful. The paper, “Spider specie identification and verification based on pattern recognition of it cobweb,” was published in Expert Systems and Applications and the paper’s research was also recently discussed in New Scientist. A team came up with an AI cobweb recognition system through the use of special software for analyzing images supplied by a spider expert. More specifically the team used images from William Eberhard of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Costa Rica. Citation: Scientists use AI cobweb analysis to determine spider species (2013, March 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from Carlos Travieso at the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria in Spain and colleagues applied their pattern recognition techniques on the pictures until they were confident they had a reliable means of identifying which species spun which type of web. According to New Scientist, they were able to achieve “astonishing” accuracy in species recognition, hitting 99.6 per cent, Their method involved principal component analysis (PCA), independent component analysis (ICA), Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), Wavelet Transform (DWT) and discriminative common vectors such as features extractors, according to the study. Interestingly, PCA provided the best performance, reaching a 99.65% ± 0.21 of success rate in identification mode and 99.98% ± 0.04 of the area under Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve in verification mode; the best combination of features extractors was PCA, DCT, DWT and ICA, which achieved a 99.96% ± 0.16 of success rate in identification mode and perfect verification. The value of their research tool extends from a way of measuring spider species to understanding and measuring biodiversity. In a previous discussion on spider classification last year, Travieso and colleagues noted the great effort under way in the scientific community to study biodiversity on the planet, yet spiders were one of most unattended groups in biology. They said the arachnids are not only plentiful but they are also ecologically crucial in almost every terrestrial and semi-terrestrial habitat. Spider webs, meanwhile, carry an incredible amount of information, they added, which can be used for the automatic classification of spider species. The researchers are now aiming to count other species of animals and insects. © 2013 More information: Spider specie identification and verification based on pattern recognition of it cobweb, Expert Systems with Applications, Volume 40, Issue 10, August 2013, Pages 4213–4225. conservation is a global priority where the study of every type of living form is a fundamental task. Inside the huge number of the planet species, spiders play an important role in almost every habitat. This paper presents a comprehensive study on the reliability of the most used features extractors to face the problem of spider specie recognition by using their cobwebs, both in identification and verification modes. We have applied a preprocessing to the cobwebs images in order to obtain only the valid information and compute the optimal size to reach the highest performance. We have used the principal component analysis (PCA), independent component analysis (ICA), Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), Wavelet Transform (DWT) and discriminative common vectors as features extractors, and proposed the fusion of several of them to improve the system’s performance. Finally, we have used the Least Square Vector Support Machine with radial basis function as a classifier. We have implemented K-Fold and Hold-Out cross-validation techniques in order to obtain reliable results. PCA provided the best performance, reaching a 99.65% ± 0.21 of success rate in identification mode and 99.98% ± 0.04 of the area under de Reveicer Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve in verification mode. The best combination of features extractors was PCA, DCT, DWT and ICA, which achieved a 99.96% ± 0.16 of success rate in identification mode and perfect verification.via Newscientist This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Researchers find it is possible to use cyanate as an energy source

first_img © 2015 For many years, scientists have believed that microorganisms that serve as ammonia oxidizers drive the nitrification process, because it was believed they were the ones that created the food for nitrite oxidizing microorganisms. Now it appears that such thinking might have to be modified, as the researchers with this new effort have found an example of an ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeote (organisms of the Archaea phylum), Nitrososphaera gargensis1, that uses cyanate as the one and only source of energy and reductant—showing that nitrite oxidizers can provide the food for ammonia oxidizers. Thus it appears to go both ways.The team made the discovery while conducting genome tests of nitrite oxidizers—they found genes that encode for cyanase, an enzyme that is known to break down cyanate, a sign that they likely could use cyanate as an energy source. To find out for sure, they conducted an aerobic growth of N. gargensis1 (an ammonia oxidizer) using just cyanate, proving that it could be done—it is now classified as the only organism able to carry out such a process.The findings by the team are an important discovery because it will help scientists better understand the nitrogen cycle in general and the nitrification process more specifically—and that should help to better understand the issues involved in solving such problems as unabated nitrification that occurs due to over fertilization of croplands leading to pollution and dead zones in the sea. And as Stein, notes, we have entered a time where human production of fixed nitrogen is greater than that produced naturally with the result being a nitrogen cycle that is now unbalanced—suggesting, perhaps that leveraging organisms such as N. gargensis1 could help restore that balance. More information: Nature (2015) DOI: 10.1038/nature14856 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Journal information: Nature Explore further Nitrogen loss in soils unearthed Citation: Researchers find it is possible to use cyanate as an energy source for nitrifiers (2015, July 31) retrieved 18 August 2019 from An international team of researches has found an example of a nitrite oxidizing organism that can convert cyanate into ammonium and carbon dioxide. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes their research which had both a genetic component and field experiments, and why they believe what they found might make the case for cyanate being classified as a key controller of the nitrification process. Lisa Stein of the University of Alberta offers a News & Views piece on the work done by the team, in the same journal edition.last_img read more

Effective Space signs deal with satellite company to use drones to lengthen

first_img © 2018 India launches rocket carrying dozens of satellites Explore further Representatives for Effective Space, a U.K. based space technology company, have announced to the press that a deal has been struck between their company and a well-known satellite operator to provide satellite support in orbit. The support, in this case, will involve placing two drones on a rocket, sending them into space and then using them to rescue two satellites that are about to run out of fuel. Long-term satellites have a limited amount of fuel to power the course-correction jets that keep the satellites positioned correctly. But such satellites, which generally hover in a geosynchronous orbit, typically carry only enough fuel to last for 15 years. After that, the satellites roam free as space junk. Space scientists have for years called on countries that launch satellites to find a way to extend the life of satellites, or at least change their trajectories toward Earth, to burn up on reentry—this is because there is only so much space available for satellites to orbit. Noting that it is getting pretty crowded up there, the group that formed Effective Space is gambling that the time is right for a company that makes and operates drones able to both rejuvenate aging satellites or drag them to their graves.The representatives for Effective Space told the press that they will launch two drones into space in 2020, both of which will attach to satellites that are about to run out of fuel. Once attached, the drones will take over positioning duties for several years. If the satellites malfunction for other reasons, the drones will steer them into a self-destruct spiral and then redeploy to service other satellites—each drone has a life of 15 years. Each of the drones, the reps reported, have the mechanical wherewithal to attach to a satellite in the same fashion as was used to stabilize the satellite while it was boosted into space by a rocket.The agreement between Effective Space and the undisclosed satellite operator is believed to be one of the first of its kind, though most in the field expect competition to heat up if the company is successful in extending the life of satellites. Citation: Effective Space signs deal with satellite company to use drones to lengthen life of satellites in orbit (2018, January 25) retrieved 18 August 2019 from Credit: Effective Space More information: This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Cooch Behar among top districts performance wise

first_imgKolkata: Cooch Behar has done remarkably well in 100 days’ work and is likely to be among the top districts in performance.The district magistrates of different districts had given power point presentation before the senior officials of the ministry of Rural Development in New Delhi on Saturday. The officials have expressed their satisfaction and a team will visit the districts soon.Six districts, Jhargram, Bankura, East and West Midnapore, Cooch Behar and Jalpaiguri have done remarkably well in 100 days’ work. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsKaushik Saha, district magistrate said: “The work has been carried out following the instruction of Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee. She has been the source of inspiration.”It may be mentioned that Banerjee had expressed her concerns when she found out that Cooch Behar district had given work for 28 days to the job card holders in 2017-18. Saha was holding a meeting at Uttarkanya and instructed the district magistrate to take up the matter seriously. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedFollowing the initiative taken up by Saha, the number of days given to the job card holders has gone up to 58. The district is also doing well in livelihood programmes.It may be mentioned that the state government has given instructions to all the district magistrates to immediately resume programmes under 100 days’ work, which had been suspended due to the three tier Panchayat elections, resulting in delay by 45 days. As the elections are over, the districts are now making hectic arrangements to reach the target.last_img read more

Agriculture dept initiates steps for yearround training to farmers

first_imgKolkata: Following Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee’s direction, the state Agriculture department has initiated all necessary steps to ensure round-the-year training programmes for farmers at Mati Tirtha in Burdwan.Asish Banerjee, the state Agriculture minister, will be visiting Mati Tirtha on June 24, to take a stock of the situation and would discuss the issues related to it with the concerned officials.It may be mentioned that Mati Tirtha in Burdwan is the permanent venue of Mati Utsav that takes place every year in January. The Chief Minister felicitates successful farmers from different parts of the state in the programme. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsMati Tirtha is spread over a large area as the Chief Minister had directed to take necessary steps so that seminars, programmes and symposiums related to agriculture and its allied departments can be held at the place.The requirement of organising such programmes was felt, in ensuring that farmers keep getting regular updates and can implement the same while carrying out agricultural activities.With the initiative taken by the state government, a team comprising senior officials of the Agriculture department visited Mati Tirtha on June 13. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedThey have prepared a report and there was detailed discussion to ensure presence of all sorts of infrastructure at Mati Tirtha, which is necessary to carry out round-the-year training of farmers.Sources said that some other departments can also organise training programmes at Mati Tirtha and they have also been approached.The state government has witnessed massive development in the agriculture sector in the past seven years, with several steps taken by Mamata Banerjee after coming to power in 2011. The steps have ensured a growth in production of paddy and at the same time, the area for cultivation of crops has also been increased.Innovations have also taken place in this sector, with research stations under the state Agriculture department working on different aspects of the sector.The state Agriculture department often organises programmes to aware farmers about new techniques and schemes. Now, the step has been taken up for their round-the-year training at Mati Tirtha. Farmers will be immensely benefitted with initiation of the same.It may be recalled that Mamata Banerjee had initiated the Mati Utsav to celebrate the success of farmers in the state and at the beginning, it used to take place at Panagarh and later it was shifted to its permanent venue at Mati Tirtha.last_img read more

Govt to sign MoU with British Council to promote exchanges

first_imgKolkata: The state government is going to sign a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with British Council to promote cultural, educational and skill development exchanges between Britain and Bengal.Expressing her happiness over the matter, Chief Minister Mamata banerjee tweeted: “I am happy to share with all of you that British Council and Govt of West Bengal are going to sign a MoU to promote cultural, educational and skill development exchanges between Britain and Bengal.” Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedAmong the salient features under the MoU are celebration of Durga Puja in the UK during Thames Festival, hosting of a River Festival in Kolkata similar to the Thames Festival in the UK, exchanging visitors between the UK and Bengal for cultural exchanges, collaboration on skill development, communication in English and overall enhancement of employability of the youth.She further tweeted: “I had raised these issues during my visit to the UK, after which Baroness Usha Prashar, Member of the House of Lords and Global Deputy Chairperson of British Council, had come to Kolkata to take the initiative forward.” Also Read – Naihati: 10 councillors return to TMC from BJPIt may be mentioned that the state government has taken a slew of measures to attract foreign tourists. A grand carnival is organised on Red Road to see off Durga idols before immersion and some of the best idols are preserved at a museum in Eco Park.Heritage walks are being organised regularly by private tour operators in North and Central Kolkata and the walks have gained immense popularlity among foreign tourists. The state government is also planning to introduce tea and religious tourism to woo global tourists.last_img read more

Sensex recoups 291 points after mega plunge

first_imgAfter correcting severely yesterday, Indian market staged a smart recovery today as the benchmark BSE Sensex spurted by 290.82 points to 26,032.38 on value- buying in realty, metals and banking stocks amid hopes that government might convene a session for passage of GST bill.Moreover, recovery in rupee, which sharply appreciated by 76 paise to 65.89 intra-day against the dollar also supported sentiment, brokers said.Trading in a wide range of 826.35 points during the day, the index managed to reclaim the 26,000-level after falling to its lowest since August 8, 2014, clocked in the previous trading. Also Read – Need to understand why law graduate’s natural choice is not legal profession: CJIThe BSE Sensex, which opened in the positive zone rallied to touch day’s high of 26,124.83 briefly, but slipped into the negative zone as selling pressure re-emerged and fell to a low of 25,298.42.However, towards the middle of the day, it staged another comeback to close the session 290.82 points or 1.13 per cent higher at 26,032.38.In the previous three sessions, the index lost 2,190.08, including yesterday’s biggest-ever fall of 1.624.51 points. Also Read – Health remains key challenge in India’s development: KovindThe NSE Nifty index also jumped 71.70 points or 0.92 per cent to end at 7,880.70. Intra-day, it reclaimed the 7,900 mark to touch a high of 7,925.40 and a low of 7,667.25.Equity brokers said sentiments got a boost after the government said, to pass key reform bills, including GST, it might reconvene the Monsoon Session.Market volatility was also high in view of August month expiry in the derivatives segment on Thursday.Among 30-Sensex stocks, 22 ended with gains led by Vedanta, Tata Motors, Coal India, ICICI Bank, Axis Bank, NTPC, Tata Steel, GAIL, SBI, RIL, BHEL, Dr Reddy’s and Hindalco. Barring IT, all the BSE sectoral indices notched up gains led by realty, metal, oil& gas, PSU and banking.Retail investors pumped money into mid-cap and small-cap shares with respective indices rising up to 1.99 per cent.Globally, most Asian bourses closed mixed with Chinese equities sliding by 7.63 per cent. A higher opening was seen in European markets.last_img read more

Dont run away from fixing responsibility Shatrughan tells BJP

first_imgActor and BJP’s Lok Sabha member Shatrughan Sinha on Thursday said that the party should not run away from fixing responsibility in the Bihar debacle and warned party leaders not to treat him like a Rajya Sabha member with no support base.”…now that the (Bihar assembly elections) verdict is out and we’re saddened by this humiliating defeat, we should not run away from fixing responsibility,” Sinha tweeted.The Bollywood veteran’s comment came after the BJP old guard, including L.K. Advani and Murli Manohar Joshi, on Tuesday demanded a thorough review of the debacle and said it cannott be done by those who were responsible (for the electoral defeat). Also Read – Punjab on alert after release of excess water from Bhakra damSinha, a former union minister, also warned party leaders not to treat him like a Rajya Sabha member, and reminded them that he has a support base.”I am not a Rajya Sabha MP. I’ve come through the support of the masses and (have) won two Lok Sabha elections with record margins. I have a support base,” he said.Sinha said despite his sincerity, efforts and intentions, he was kept away from campaigning in the Bihar assembly elections.”My friends, voters and supporters were let down,” he said.Sinha said he never wanted to be the chief minister of Bihar, but insisted the election results would have been different if he was allowed to campaign in the state.He reiterated he had not worked against the BJP in any way. There have been rumours that the party might take disciplinary action against him for alleged “anti-party” activities.last_img read more

Representing the best of art and culture

first_imgIn order to promote classical music and dance and to highlight its importance in Indian Cinema, ‘Saniddhya’ (a cultural society) will organise classical music and dance festival and seminar –’A Contribution of Indian Classical Music and Dance in Indian Cinema’ at Palika Park in the national Capital from February 4-5. Kamal Kumar, Secretary of ‘Saniddhya’ said: “Since 2000, ‘Saniddhya’ is working for promoting Indian art and culture as well as working for social issues through art and culture.”The first day of the event will see a group presentation of Saniddhya by young artists, solo performance by Shikha Khare Kathak exponent and disciple of Kathak Maestro-Padma Vibhushan Pt. Birju Maharaj Ji, Sufi Divine Qawwali Group, Manju Wazir Dance Group, solo performance by Khayti kalia kathak exponent, a group dance performance by Sushmita Kanjilal, group performance by Maa Saraswati Music and Dance Academy.A group dance performance by Shadja Foundation, solo and trio dance presentation by Saniddhya Repertory artists, a group dance performance by Dharohar academy, Bollywood classic singing performance by Manaya, a dance presentation by Lekha Sharma, a group dance performance by Nritya Bharti Kalapeeth and melody singing performance by Vishuddh Band, will be the main attractions on the second day of the event.WHEN: February 4-5WHERE: Palika Park, C.P.TIMINGS: 6 pm to 9 pmlast_img read more

Governor Partha hold meet with seven Bengal universities

first_imgKolkata: Governor Keshari Nath Tripathi, in presence of state Education minister Partha Chatterjee, held a meeting with seven universities of the state at Raj Bhavan on Thursday afternoon.The Governor, who also happens to be the Chancellor of all the state universities, advised dealing with the students in a compassionate manner and stressed on filling up the vacant posts of teachers for maintaining the academic standards. V-Cs of Calcutta, Jadavpur, Rabindra Bharati, Presidency, Kalyani, Burdwan and West Bengal State Universities attended the meeting. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeAccording to a source in the Governor House, some Vice-Chancellors pointed out their difficulties in appointing Assistant Professors (AF) in their institutions. “In a number of instances, when we have gone for appointment of AFs, we have found a section of teachers alleging favouritism on the part of the university authorities. This is a serious problem in appointment of teachers,” a Vice-Chancellor had pointed out. V-Cs of Calcutta University and Burdwan University made a powerpoint presentation before the Governor, to highlight some new measures that they have taken for academic excellence. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedThe Governor and the Education minister had differences in opinion when the matter of student admission came up in the discussion. It has been learnt from reliable sources that the Governor expressed his discontent over the violence in some colleges over student admission and blamed the role of student unions and student elections for the same. “There was a time when the Uttar Pradesh government had set a precedence by doing away with student voting. But you will not do similar things here,” the Governor had told Chatterjee during the interaction. Chatterjee retorted strongly by saying that the state has gone for student councils and unions have already become non-existent. The minister expressed his discontent over the role of Presidency University Vice-Chancellor Anuradha Lohia, in dealing with the issue of handing over Hindu Hostel to its students. The Governor also raised questions, expressing his opinion that the issue of student agitation that has been continuing over a month, could have been solved through talks with the students.last_img read more

HC extends stay order on fund distribution to Puja committees

first_imgKolkata: The Calcutta High Court on Tuesday extended the interim stay on disbursal of Rs 10,000 each to 28,000 Puja committees across the state that was announced by Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee last month.A division bench comprising acting Chief Justice Debasish Kar Gupta and Justice Sampa Sarkar also said that it will pass an order on whether the PIL in this regard is maintainable or not on Wednesday.The state government on Tuesday informed the Calcutta High Court during the hearing that it cannot interfere in a legislative decision on granting funds to Durga Puja committees, after the petitioner claimed that it is a violation of the secular structure of the Constitution. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeAdvocate General Kishore Dutta submitted before the division bench that the funds are to be used for assisting police under the ‘Safe Drive Save Life’ traffic safety campaign of the state government and also for sanitation and public safety. He further added that the funds are not for any religious purpose.He maintained that the funds were allotted following the sanction of the state Finance department and added that it was allocated under a new scheme which will be passed in the next state Budget. The Acting Chief Justice asked whether the court will sit mum while public money is being expended and will interfere only after it has been distributed. Appearing for the petitioner, senior counsel Bikash Bhattacharya argued that it is a donation to Puja committees and not for any public purpose.The court on Friday had passed an interim stay order, directing the state government to put on hold the distribution of funds to Durga Puja committees till Tuesday. The interim stay came after advocate Sourabh Dutta filed a PIL, challenging the programme. It may be mentioned that on September 10, Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee had declared that Rs 10,000 would be given to each of the 28,000 Puja committees across the state.last_img read more

Guide to using essential oils

first_imgIndulging in essential oils is healthy as they can solve all your beauty related problems, enhance your mood and improve concentration. However, use them right, say experts. Do’sEssential oils can be sensitising. It is necessary to conduct a patch test before purchasing them and making sure it suits your skin type. Some of these oils cause severe skin sensitising and sun sensitivity. So if you have a sensitive skin, it’s always advisable to check with a qualified practitioner first.Make sure that the product is 100 per cent pure and natural. Non-organic brands may add fillers which often include harmful chemicals and this may harm you in the long run.Dilute essential oils prior to application. Essential oils can be blended with base oils or carrier oils before applying to your skin.They are highly concentrated and should never be used undiluted on the skin. It needs to be mixed with carrier/base oil. The ratio should be 3-4 drops of essential oil in 10 ml of base oil. Some oils like olive, almond, jojoba, grape seed and coconut oil can be used as carrier oil.Always store essential oils in a cool dark place. Essentials oils should be stored in a cool dark place and out of direct sunlight. It is simply to help preserve their potency. Essential oils have a very long shelf life, some even last for years without losing their potency, if stored correctly.Don’tsDo not ingest essential oil. They should only be used externally. Though there are many people who use essential oils by ingesting them, this should only be done by consulting a doctor or a medicine practitioner before consuming.Avoid using essential oils while pregnant or nursing. Every essential oil serves a particular purpose, so it is advisable to consult your dermatologist before buying, especially for pregnant women.Cinnamon, clove, ginger, jasmine, sage, chamomile are some of the more common essential oils that should not be used by them.Do not apply essential oils to mucous membranes. Never use essential oils near the eyes or put directly into ears. Some oils may damage your contact lenses, so never touch lenses immediately after using essential oils. These oils are potent and can cause serious irritation to your eyes.In case you have sensitive skin, and have a history with irritability or rashes then start by applying these oils discreetly. Make a small patch of skin about an inch square, and massage the oil into it. Wait 24 hours to see if the area has any itchiness or irritation.last_img read more

Kolkata Metro starts highlevel probe into passengers death

first_imgKolkata: Two days after the horrific death of a passenger in the Kolkata Metro, senior railway safety officials on Monday visited the accident spot and started a high-level probe into the tragedy, a Kolkata Metro Railway official said. Commissioner of Railway Safety (CRS-Metro division) Sailesh Garg, led a team of senior railway officials and engineers to the Park Street Metro Railway station, where the accident took place on Saturday evening. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: Mamata Garg also held a meeting with the Metro Railway officials here at Metro Bhawan and then examined the metro rake, a door of which had allegedly malfunctioned during the accident. “We will conduct a thorough investigation. Today was the site visit. The Metro rake will be checked for any possible mechanical snags. The reason for the possible malfunction can only be found out after seeing the detailed report. Those directly involved in the incident will also be interrogated,” a Metro Railway official said. Also Read – Lightning kills 8, injures 16 in state Sajal Kanjilal, a resident of Kasba area of Kolkata, was trying to board a Kavi Subhash-bound train at the Park Street metro station on Saturday when the train started moving with his hand stuck between two sliding doors and the body hanging outside. After the train had moved some distance, the shouts of other train passengers alerted the driver, who applied the emergency brake and the victim fell, face-first, on the track below. The train came to a stop with four coaches inside the tunnel and the remaining four on the platform area. Eyewitnesses said the victim lay in the tunnel for quite sometime before security personnel ran and removed him. “First Information Report (FIR) was registered on Sunday against the Metro Railway after a complaint alleging negligence on its part was lodged by the family members of the deceased,” police said. A motorman and the guard of the Metro train have been suspended.last_img read more

Sliced Bread was Briefly Banned in America during the Second World War

first_img“The best invention since sliced bread” has become a popular expression. Pre-sliced loaves hit the market in 1928, heralded as “the greatest forward step in the baking industry since bread was wrapped.” However, during the Second World War, the step forward halted mid-stride when sliced bread was briefly banned in the United States.In 1943, the Secretary of Agriculture and head of the War Foods Administration, Claude R. Wickard, came up with the idea to ban pre-sliced bread in America, and he pushed it through the same year. The ban was not clearly explained; it is thought to have been a wartime conservation measure regarding resources, probably referring to wax paper, steel, or wheat. It might also have been an answer to the problems caused by increased price of bread thanks to the Office of Price Administration’s authorization of a 10 percent rise in the flour price.A loaf of white bread sliced to uniform thickness by a bread-slicing machineAt the time pre-sliced bread was a popular product nationwide. So banning sliced bread was expected to decrease bread consumption, which would reduce the demand for flour and, finally, decrease the prices of those products, while at the same time increase stockpiles of wheat.Regarding the wax-paper conservation, this type of bread required much thicker wax paper than the loaves because, understandably, it went stale very quickly. In fact, this was stated as the official reason for the ban, but reportedly, there wasn’t any lack of wax paper at the time. Most bread-making companies had wax-paper supplies that lasted for several months. Moreover, the idea of conserving wheat can be observed as unreasonable since, at the time of the ban, the U.S. had already stockpiled more than one billion bushels of wheat–a supply for around two years even if there wasn’t any new wheat harvested during that period.Interestingly, in order to solve the “staleness problem,” Rohwedder, the inventor of the first automatic bread slicer, attempted to hold the pieces together with pins. The pins would be removed every time a slice was taken. This didn’t work out as expected, so the machine was modified to wrap the sliced loaves in wax paper.Regarding steel, the bread-making machines used some of it so it has been suggested that the ban was related to the conservation of this metal. Nevertheless, this reasoning seems weak, as most of the bread manufacturers at the time weren’t actively buying new bread slicing machines. Even the amount of metal used in the production of the large-sized machines was minor.Not surprisingly, the masses were quite disappointed when they learned about the ban. Its popularity in U.S. households was so widespread that it even led to the expression: “the best thing since sliced bread.” The New York Times published a letter from an agitated housewife about her dissatisfaction over the ban:This photograph depicts a “new electrical bread slicing machine” in use by an unnamed bakery in St. Louis in 1930 and may well show Rohwedder’s machine in use by the Papendick Bakery Company“I should like to let you know how important sliced bread is to the morale and saneness of a household. My husband and four children are all in a rush during and after breakfast. Without ready-sliced bread I must do the slicing for toast – two pieces for each one – that’s ten. For their lunches I must cut by hand at least twenty slices, for two sandwiches apiece. Afterward I make my own toast. Twenty-two slices of bread to be cut in a hurry!”Read another story from us: Napoleon responsible for a great many turning points in history, including Nutella. Really.Fortunately, three months after the ban was introduced, it was rescinded, on March 8, 1943. When he lifted the ban, Wickard stated that savings were not as much as expected.last_img read more

Military Kits of the Common British Soldier from the Middle Ages to

first_imgYou have probably heard the phrase “The empire on which the sun never sets,” but even if you haven’t, you can easily guess that this particular phrase has been used multiple times throughout history to describe the most powerful global empires that ever existed. There have been several such empires, but the fact is that none of them is comparable with the British Empire–the largest empire the world has ever seen. For centuries, the British Empire shaped the history of the world. At its peak, it covered an area of 14 million square miles and had great power and even greater influence in a considerable number of countries.An empire as great as the British clearly has a long and eventful military history, which in this case can be traced back to the year of 1066, when the Battle of Hastings was fought. But over the past 1,000 years, the British Isles have seen countless other battles that changed the history of the country and the entire world. Of course, British soldiers played a vital role in the shaping of the empire, but what could a common soldier do without proper military equipment?Over the past millennium, the inventory carried by the common British soldier has evolved significantly. Now, thanks to photographer Thom Atkinson, whose series entitled “Soldiers’ Inventories” captures the battle kits from the Battle of Hastings through the Battle of Agincourt in 1415 to the Falkland’s Conflict in 1982, we have a clear look through history and learn some intriguing details about what a regular British soldier carried in battle over the past 10 centuries.The Battle of Hastings in 106611th Century Kit – Photo: Thom AtkinsonThe Battle of Hastings is arguably the most important battle in English history. Fought on Senlac Hill between William of Normandy and his army and King Harold II of England and his English army, this battle ended in the defeat of King Harold II and largely shaped the future of Medieval England.When compared with the modern-day soldiers’ equipment, it is clear that the 11th-century soldier carried only a few objects because of weight.Mounted Knight, Siege of Jerusalem in 1244 The kit includes white cloth with a snip for cutting small items, a leather box of needles and a roll of thread, fire steel, a flint and tinder for starting a fire. Photo: Thom AtkinsonThe Christian garrison in Jerusalem used this equipment when the city came under siege in 1244, but it didn’t help a lot, since the Khwarezmians managed to capture and destroy the city.Battle of Agincourt in 1415Archers kit issued for the Battle of Agincourt in 1415. Photo: Thom AtkinsonThe Battle of Agincourt is one of the most famous battles of the Hundred Years War and the battle that inspired many literary geniuses, including William Shakespeare, who authored the iconic Henry V. Historians agree that the Anglo-Welsh archers won the battle against the French thanks to “the machine gun of its age”–the humble longbow.The Battle of Bosworth 1485Here you can notice the Paldrons – to protect the shoulder; the left one is bigger because the left side was the defensive side. Photo: Thom AtkinsonOne of the many defining battles in the history of England is the Battle of Bosworth. Fought on August 22, 1485, this battle ended the reign of King Richard III and established the Tudor dynasty on the English throne.The Armada in 1588, and the first to includes a gunThe kit includes a Cabaset (helmet) with a broad rim which provided good cover to face and back of neck. The helmet has cheek pieces that fold down. Photo Thom AtkinsonOne of England’s greatest military achievements was the victory over the “Invincible Spanish Armada” in 1588. That year Queen Elizabeth I delivered the famous speech at Tilbury in Essex that inspired her troops to proudly defend England against the Spanish invaders.New Model Army musketeer, Battle of Naseby in 1645 Here, you can notice the Matchlock Musket, which used a slow match to fire the main charge. The barrel was four feet long and fired a lead ball weighing 1/12th of a pound. Photo: Thom AtkinsonOne of the decisive battles in the English Civil War was the Battle of Naseby. On June 14, 1645, Parliament’s New Model Army defeated the royalists, which marked the turning point of the war.Private Sentinel, Battle of Malplaquet in 1709The vivid colors were to prevent soldiers from shooting one of their own. Photo: Thom AtkinsonFought in north-east France, the Battle of Malplaquet was the bloodiest battle of the War of the Spanish Succession. Spain and Bourbon fought an alliance that included England.The Battle of Waterloo in 1815Notice the straight lasted shoes. The leather was rough side out and as they were straight lasted there was no right or left shoe; soldiers were expected to swap them around to prevent excessive wear on one side. Photo: Thom AtkinsonThe Battle of Waterloo took place in Belgium on June 18, 1815, and marked the beginning of the end of Napoleon Bonaparte’s reign. In this battle, the British and their allies defeated Napoleon’s forces and put an end to the French domination in Europe.The Battle of Alma in 1854Battle of Alma. Photo: Thom AtkinsonThe Battle of the Alma was the first battle of the Crimean War fought between British, French and Turkish troops against the Russians. The allied army defeated the Russians, blocked their advance on Sebastopol, and forced them to retreat, which largely shaped the rest of the Crimean War.Battle of the Somme 1916Entrenching tool handle; often the handle was customised with lumps of metal and made into a trench club. Photo: Thom AtkinsonThe date was July 1. The year: 1916. The place: The River Somme in France. It was here where one of the bloodiest and longest battles of the First World War ensued. For 141 days the Brits and their allies fought against the Imperial German Army, which ended abruptly due to harsh weather. This particular event is widely remembered as the first battle in WW1 that involved the use of tanks and air strikes.Lance Corporal, Parachute Brigade, Battle of Arnhem in 1944Jump smock camouflage first issued in 1942 (the pattern was only replaced in 1980) and over smock worn when jumping. Photo: Thom AtkinsonRemembered in the annals of history as one of the largest and most daring operations of World War II, the Battle of Arnhem was a plan to end the war early, but not everything went as planned. It was a military disaster that claimed the lives of over 1,000 soldiers and resulted in the capture of 6,000 more.Royal Marine Commando, Falklands conflict in 1982 1982-Falkands Conflict. Photo: Thom AtkinsonOn April 2, 1982, Argentinian forces occupied the Falklands Islands demanding sovereignty over the territory. This resulted in a brief but very hostile conflict between the U.K. and Argentina, which ended in a defeat of the Argentinian Army.Close Support Sapper, Royal Engineers, Helmand Province in 2014This is not the only project included in Atkinson’s resume and if you want to see more of his work, you can visit his website.Helmand Province, 2014. Photo: Thom AtkinsonAtkinson’s project shows the exceptional similarities and differences between soldier inventory separated by decades and perfectly captures the evolution of military weapon. Swords became guns, helmets became gas masks.Related story from us: The Good Cemeterian: Мan spends his Sundays cleaning forgotten veterans’ tombstonesWhile tools and arms have visibly evolved, the necessities remain the same. “The fact that certain objects recur is more fascinating than the ones that evolve,” said Atkinson, referring to the point that there is a spoon in every soldier’s gear.Atkinson told the Telegraph that the project, which took him nine months, was an education. “I’ve never been a soldier. It’s difficult to look in on a subject like this and completely understand it. I wanted it to be about people. Watching everything unfold, I begin to feel that we really are the same creatures with the same fundamental needs.”last_img read more

WATCH Collin Sexton threw an unreal behind the back alleyoop at the

first_img5-star Alabama recruit Collin Sexton showed out at the McDonald’s All-American Game last night with a ridiculous alley-oop to close out the first half.Sexton went behind his back while in the air before tossing the oop to his teammate Kevin Knox for the spike. He’s headed to play for Avery Johnson, at least for a year.Watch Sexton flash his skills at the McDonald’s:last_img

After claiming double standard Odell Beckham posts mash up video of Tom

first_imgOr ….immmaturity , or “needs to grow up” or “selfish” or… umm what else is it exactly that ‘they’ say…. or “umcomposed” no bro , I’ve watched that man do that exact same thing for years. Beat every time I cheered for in the super bowls…— Odell Beckham Jr (@OBJ_3) December 4, 2017 Odell Beckham made some headlines recently when he claimed there was a double standard for Tom Brady’s emotional outbursts and his own, after Brady got into a heated sideline spat with offensive coordinator Josh McDaniels, this past Sunday.On Monday, Beckham took to Twitter and let loose:Listen when I say this is the craziest thing someone ever has tweeted or posted to me because I LITERALLY had this same conversation today about the EXACT thing ur takin about it. “There’s rules..and then there’s rules..”— Odell Beckham Jr (@OBJ_3) December 4, 2017 I learned from him. This is the ?. So I’m following his lead, I just may not know how to express it the same way. But don’t get it confused , how 12 feels about the game , I would have a hard time sayin that’s not EXACTLY how I feel. #GoatChasin— Odell Beckham Jr (@OBJ_3) December 4, 2017center_img Odell didn’t just Tweet to make his case, he also posted an expertly edited mash up video on Instagram of Brady and him having nearly identical emotional sideline outbursts.The video editing is on point, and it’s a compelling exhibit, but one small detail has been omitted. Tom Brady has 5 freaking Super Bowl titles to justify unleashing his raging emotional inferno. To this point in his career, Beckham hasn’t won anything and has caused a bunch of headaches.Odell Beckham vs. Tom Brady, Exhibit A.last_img read more

3 Confusing Windows 8 Features Explained

first_img Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own. Free Workshop | August 28: Get Better Engagement and Build Trust With Customers Now min read Enroll Now for Free 1. Problem: There’s no Start button. One of the most bizarre features of Windows 8 is the lack of the Start button and menu in the lower left of the screen. Instead, the new design places many control functions in a large menu on the right.Solution: Install a Start Button/Menu app. Third-party developers have rushed to offer plugins that put the Start menu back into Windows 8. Vistart 8 and ClassicShell are both free. Start8 is available for $5. All offer traditional start button and menu functionality.Remember, these apps come from smaller developers so support will be spotty. Be sure to back your material up before you install it.Related: Why You Might Not Upgrade to Windows 82. Problem: The tile-based interface. Windows 8 uses what’s called the “Metro” interface, a group of touch-screen tiles, to control the PC. Instead of working from familiar menus, users must remember where a tile is located and what it is called to find their work.Solution: Find the touch screen-friendly tasks in your business. The trick to using Metro is to match it to chores that lend themselves to touch-based control. Instead of using a PC to check inventory, consider using a Windows 8-powered tablet that you can easily carry around a stockroom or sales floor. Check the updated templates page for touch-oriented content for Word and Excel files.3. Problem: There’s a different Windows 8 for different devices. Microsoft has launched its new OS in three major pieces: The PC-based Windows 8, the mobile-based version called Windows Phone 8 and a hybrid called Windows RT that functions on its new Surface line of mobile tablet devices. This can create compatibility problems for programs that do not run on all platforms.Solution: Become familiar with the improved security options. The Windows 8 cross-platform strategy is complex, but it is the most secure platform Microsoft has created. It comes with features — such as advanced malware protection and improved identity management, among other things — that provide an integrated, enterprise-grade security solution, keeping safer than in traditional web-based apps. Microsoft even offers a series of tutorials about its new security features.Related: For Windows Users, Microsoft’s ‘Surface’ Might Be Your Next TabletWill you upgrade to the new Windows 8? Let us know why — or why not — in the comments.center_img October 26, 2012 Bill Gates wasn’t speaking lightly when he called Microsoft Windows 8 the next big step in computing. Indeed, Microsoft Windows’ latest version — which is launching today — steps away from many of the familiar conventions of work personal computers.Translation: Upgrading to Windows 8 will be confusing. For instance, the familiar “Start” button is gone. And the interactive desktop where most files and applications rest has been minimalized. Plus, there are different versions of the software depending on the device you’re using.Here’s a look at three of the most confusing new features and how to navigate them, based on our testing of the new software: This hands-on workshop will give you the tools to authentically connect with an increasingly skeptical online audience.last_img read more

iPad Mini 5 Hits New Low Price

first_imgPrime Day may be over, but Walmart’s Big Save event now extends through the weekend. The big-box retailer will continue to offer Black Friday like deals another 48 hours. Walmart still has the Editor’s Choice 2019 Apple iPad Mini 5 on sale for $359. That’s $40 off its regular price and $10 cheaper than its Prime Day price. (Amazon mirrors this deal). It packs a 7.9-inch Retina Display, an A12 Bionic chip, Touch ID, and 64GB of storage. The one thing we don’t like about the new iPad Mini is that it sports the same dated, big-bezel design of the iPad mini 4. It also has the same Lightning port, rather than adopting USB-C connectivity like the new iPad Pro.  by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeKelley Blue Book5 Mid-engine Corvettes That Weren’tKelley Blue BookUndoCNN International for ANAWhy Tennis Pundits Are Tipping This WomanCNN International for ANAUndoMayo ClinicManaging psoriatic arthritis painMayo ClinicUndoVerizon WirelessThis new phone will blow your mind.Verizon WirelessUndoTODAYPolice Identify Girl Licking Ice Cream Tub In Viral VideoTODAYUndoForbes.comTV Shows That Premiered in 2018 & Are Worth Catching up OnForbes.comUndoAdvertisement Best & Worst Laptop Brands 2019Which laptop brand is best? We’ve ranked every major player from Apple to Huawei based on review scores, tech support, innovation and more.Volume 0%Press shift question mark to access a list of keyboard shortcutsKeyboard Shortcutsplay/pauseincrease volumedecrease volumeseek forwardsseek backwardstoggle captionstoggle fullscreenmute/unmuteseek to %SPACE↑↓→←cfm0-9接下来播放MacBook Air vs MacBook Pro: Which 13-inch MacBook Is Right For You?03:46关闭选项Automated Captions – en-USAutomated Captions – en-US facebook twitter 发邮件 reddit 链接已复制直播00:0001:3001:30Your Recommended Playlist03:46MacBook Air vs MacBook Pro: Which 13-inch MacBook Is Right For You?02:01Apple’s Mac & iPad Pro Event: 5 Things You Need To Know01:07How to Find Your MAC Address in Windows 1001:30How to Use VLOOKUP in Excel01:34How to Reset a Windows 10 PC01:32How to Turn Your Windows 10 PC into a Wireless Display关闭  Buy the Apple iPad Mini for $359 ($40 off) at Walmart In our iPad Mini review, we loved its speedy performance, vibrant display, and Apple Pencil support. It’s the most powerful and versatile small tablet you can get.  On a positive note, the new iPad mini 5’s A12 Bionic chip enabled it to juggle multiple apps simultaneously in our lab. We also enjoyed fluid gameplay while playing Injustice 2. Battery-wise, the iPad Mini 5’s built-in rechargeable power source went beyond expectations. Although Apple promises up to 10 hours of runtime, in our Laptop Mag battery test, it endured at 12 hours and 40 minutes. In a nutshell, the iPad Mini 5 is the king among small tablets.  Apple mini 2019 ReviewBest Tablets of 2019last_img read more